Here we show that basal and angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1)-regulated control of EC permeability is mediated by 2 different functional states of sphingosine kinase-1 (SK-1). Mice depleted of SK-1 have increased vascular leakiness, whereas mice transgenic for SK-1 in ECs show attenuation of leakiness. Furthermore, Ang-1 rapidly and transiently stimulates SK-1 activity and phosphorylation, and induces an increase in intracellular sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) concentration.
Overexpression of SK-1 resulted in inhibition of permeability similar to that seen for Ang-1, whereas knockdown of SK-1 by small interfering RNA blocked Ang-1-mediated inhibition of permeability.
Transfection with SKS225A, a nonphosphorylatable mutant of SK-1, inhibited basal leakiness, and both SKS225A and a dominant-negative SK-1 mutant removed the capacity of Ang-1 to inhibit permeability.
These effects were independent of extracellular S1P as knockdown or inhibition of S1P1, S1P2, or S1P3, did not affect the Ang-1 response. Thus, SK-1 levels in ECs powerfully regulate basal permeability in vitro and in vivo.
In addition, the Ang-1-induced inhibition of leakiness is mediated through activation of SK-1, defining a new signaling pathway in the Ang-1 regulation of permeability.
Division of Human Immunology, Hanson Institute, Adelaide, Australia.
Blood. 2008 Apr;111(7):3489-97
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