Current evidences suggest that chloroacetaldehyde (CAA), one of the main metabolites of ifosfamide activation, contributes to its nephrotoxicity. However, the pathophysiology of CAA-induced Fanconi syndrome is not fully understood.
The present work examined the adverse effects of CAA on precision-cut rat renal cortical slices, which allowed studying the toxic effect of CAA on proximal endocytosis.
We demonstrated that clinically relevant concentrations of CAA (< or =200 microM) are able to inhibit the uptake of horseradish peroxidase, a marker of proximal tubular cell endocytosis in renal tubular proximal cells. CAA > or =75 microM has adverse effects, both on viability parameters and on energy metabolism, as shown by the great decrease in total glutathione and ATP levels.
In addition, the V-ATPase, which plays a crucial role in intracellular vesicle trafficking, was inhibited by 100 microM of CAA. By contrast, the slight decrease in Na-K-ATPase activity observed for CAA> or = 125 microM (maximum inhibition: 33%) could not totally explain the inhibition of the reabsorption processes.
In conclusion, the addition of the two main adverse effects of CAA (decrease in ATP levels and inhibition of the V-ATPase) could explain the inhibition of endocytosis and the Fanconi syndrome observed during ifosfamide treatments.