The pathogenic mechanisms underlying this dermatitis, however, remain to be elucidated.
In this study, we demonstrated that the production of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines was enhanced at the site of inflammation.
The development of dermatitis was completely suppressed in Tnfsf1a(-/-) but not in Il6(-/-) mice, similar to that observed in arthritis and aortitis. However, IL-17 deficiency did not affect the development of dermatitis at all, in clear contrast to that of arthritis and aortitis.
Different from arthritis and aortitis, adoptive transfer of Il1rn(-/-) T cells did not induce dermatitis in the recipient SCID mice and skin lesions developed in Il1rn(-/-) SCID mice, indicating that T cells are not involved in the development of skin lesions.
In support for this, bone marrow cell transplantation experiments showed that TNF produced by skin residential cells, but not bone marrow cell-derived cells, was important for the development of dermatitis. Furthermore, we showed that IL-1 directly enhanced TNF and chemokine expression in keratinocytes.
These observations suggest that excess IL-1 signaling directly activates keratinocytes to produce TNF and chemokines, resulting in the development of psoriasis-like skin lesions without the involvement of autoimmunity in Il1rn(-/-) mice.