They have been reported to inhibit the synthesis of the inducible nitric oxide synthase and to induce the expression of heme oxygenase-1. This study examines the mechanisms by which 2',5'-dihydroxychalcone (2',5'-DHC) induces an increase in cellular glutathione (GSH) levels using a cell line stably expressing a luciferase reporter gene driven by antioxidant-response elements (MCF-7/AREc32). The 2',5'-DHC-induced increase in cellular GSH levels was partially inhibited by the catalytic antioxidant MnTDE-1,3-IP(5+), suggesting that reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediate the antioxidant adaptive response. 2',5'-DHC treatment induced phosphorylation of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway, which was also inhibited by MnTDE-1,3-IP(5+). These findings suggest a ROS-dependent activation of the AP-1 transcriptional response. However, whereas 2',5'-DHC triggered the NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) transcriptional response, cotreatment with MnTDE-1,3-IP(5+) did not decrease 2',5'-DHC-induced Nrf2/ARE activity, showing that this pathway is not dependent on ROS. Moreover, pharmacological inhibitors of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways showed a role for JNK and p38MAPK in mediating the 2',5'-DHC-induced Nrf2 response.
These findings suggest that the 2',5'-DHC-induced increase in GSH levels results from a combination of ROS-dependent and ROS-independent pathways.
JournalFree radical biology & medicine
Free Radic Biol Med (1873-4596)
Department of Medicine, National Jewish Health, Denver, CO 80206, USA.
Free Radic Biol Med. 2011 Sep;51(6):1146-54
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