Its metabolite, TCP, has also been widely detected in urinary samples collected from people of various age groups.
With a goal of elucidating the factors that control the environmental contamination, impact, persistence, and ecotoxicity of chlorpyrifos, we examine, in this review, the peer-reviewed literature relating to chlorpyrifos adsorption and desorption behavior in various solid-phase matrices.
Adsorption tends to reduce chlorpyrifos mobility, but adsorption to erodible particulates, dissolved organic matter, or mobile inorganic colloids enhances its mobility.
Adsorption to suspended sediments and particulates constitutes a major off-site migration route for chlorpyrifos to surface waters, wherein it poses a potential danger to aquatic organisms.
Adsorption increases the persistence of chlorpyrifos in the environment by reducing its avail- ability to a wide range of dissipative and degradative forces, whereas the effect of adsorption on its ecotoxicity is dependent upon the route of exposure.
Chlorpyrifos adsorbs to soils, aquatic sediments, organic matter, and clay minerals to differing degrees.
Its adsorption strongly correlates with organic carbon con- tent of the soils and sediments. A comprehensive review of studies that relied on the batch equilibrium technique yields mean and median Kd values for chlorpyrifos of 271 and 116 L/kg for soils, and 385 and 403 L/kg for aquatic sediments.
Chlorpyrifos adsorption coefficients spanned two orders of magnitude in soils.
Normalizing the partition coefficient to organic content failed to substantially reduce variability to commonly acceptable level of variation.
Mean and median values for chlorpyrifos partition coefficients normalized to organic carbon, K, were 8,163 and 7,227 L/kg for soils and 13,439 and 15,500 L/kg for sediipents.
This variation may result from several factors, including various experimental artifacts, variation in quality of soil organic matter, and inconsistencies in experimental methodologies.
Based on this review, there appears to be no definitive quantification of chlorpyrifos adsorption or desorption characteristics. Thus, it is difficult to predict its adsorptive behavior with certainty, without resorting to experimental methods specific to the soil or sediment of interest.
This limitation should be recognized in the context of current efforts to predict the risk, fate, and transport of chlorpyrifos based upon published partition coefficients.
Based on a comprehensive review of the peer-reviewed literature related to adsorption and desorption of chlorpyrifos, we propose the following key areas for future research.
From this review, it becomes increasingly evident that pesticide partitioning cannot be fully accounted for by the fraction of soil or solid-matrix organic matter or carbon content. Therefore, research that probes the variation in the nature and quality of soil organic matter on pesticide adsorption is highly desirable.
Pesticide persistence and bioavailability depend on insights into desorption capacity. Therefore, understanding the fate and environmental impact of hydrophobic pesticides is incomplete without new research being performed to improve insights into pesticide desorption from soils and sediments.
There is also a need for greater attention and consistency in developing experimental methods aimed at estimating partition coefficients. Moreover, in such testing, choosing initial concentrations and liquid-solid ratios that are more representative of environmental conditions could improve usefulness and interpretation of data that are obtained.
Future monitoring efforts should include the sampling and analysis of suspended particulates to account for suspended solid-phase CPF, a commonly underestimated fraction in surface water quality monitoring programs. Finally, management practices related to the reduction of off-site migration of CPF should be further evaluated, including alternative agricultural practices leading to reduction in soil erosion and structural best management practices, such as sedimentation ponds, treatment wetlands, and vegetated edge-of-field strips.
- DOI - Reviews of environmental contamination and toxicology (DOI)
JournalReviews of environmental contamination and toxicology
Rev Environ Contam Toxicol (0179-5953)
Reviews of environmental contamination and toxicology
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-2910, USA, sgebremariam [at] wsu.edu
Rev Environ Contam Toxicol. 2012 ;215():123-75
Español | English
© Galenicom 1999-2013