Broth microdilution and time-kill assays were performed using a standard inoculum [ca. 10(5)colony-forming units (CFU)/mL as per Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines] and a high inoculum (ca. 10(7)CFU/mL). Whereas minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of comparators were 2-8-fold higher when tested at high inoculum, oritavancin MICs were 16-fold higher for all strains at the high inoculum relative to the standard inoculum. However, in time-kill assays, when tested at its fC(min) [trough concentration of free (non-protein-bound) drug] and fC(max) (peak concentration of non-protein-bound drug), oritavancin retained its bactericidal activity against a vancomycin-susceptible, meticillin-susceptible S. aureus (VS-MSSA) strain and a vancomycin-susceptible, meticillin-resistant S. aureus (VS-MRSA) strain both at standard and high inocula.
At its fC(max), oritavancin was bactericidal at standard inoculum but not at high inoculum against two vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (VISA) strains.
Against both VISA strains at standard inoculum, oritavancin at its fC(min) reduced cell density by between 2 and 3 log (bacteriostatic), predicting that it will retain activity against certain VISA infections. However, oritavancin had no substantial growth inhibitory effect against either VISA strain at high inoculum, suggesting that in rare VISA infections with an anticipated high bacterial burden such as endocarditis, alternative oritavancin dosing strategies, including combinations with other agents, may be explored.