They may also be detrimental to the host in situations such as chronic inflammation or severe sepsis.
The objective of this study was to establish whether MPO associated with NETs is active and able to kill bacteria.
Neutrophils were stimulated with PMA to release NETs. Peroxidase activity measurements were performed and showed that enzymatically active MPO was released from the neutrophils, 2-4 h after stimulation, concomitant with NET formation.
Approximately 30% of the total cellular MPO was released, with the majority bound to the NETs. The bound enzyme retained its activity.
Staphylococcus aureus were not killed when added to preformed NETs under our assay conditions. However, addition of H(2)O(2) to the bacteria in the presence of NETs resulted in MPO-dependent killing, which was observed with NETs in situ and with NETs when they were removed from the neutrophils by limited DNase digestion.
Our results show that the enzymatic activity of MPO on NETs could contribute to antimicrobial activity or tissue injury when NETs are released from neutrophils at sites of infection or inflammation.