Differentiation and bone resorption were studied as the macrophage colony-stimulating factor-1-receptor activator of NF-κB ligand formation of multinucleated tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive cells from primary murine bone marrow-derived precursors. A(2A) receptor and osteoclast marker expression levels were studied by RT-PCR. Cytokine secretion was assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
In vivo examination of A(2A) knockout (KO)/control bones was determined by TRAP staining, micro-computed tomography, and electron microscopy.
The A(2A) receptor agonist, CGS21680, inhibited osteoclast differentiation and function (half maximal inhibitory concentration, 50 nmol/L), increased the percentage of immature osteoclast precursors, and decreased IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α secretion, an effect that was reversed by the A(2A) antagonist, ZM241385. Cathepsin K and osteopontin mRNA expression increased in control and ZM241385-pretreated osteoclasts, and this was blocked by CGS21680. Micro-computed tomography of A(2A)KO mouse femurs showed a significantly decreased bone volume/trabecular bone volume ratio, decreased trabecular number, and increased trabecular space. A(2A)KO femurs showed an increased TRAP-positive osteoclast.
Electron microscopy in A(2A)KO femurs showed marked osteoclast membrane folding and increased bone resorption. Thus, adenosine, acting via the A(2A) receptor, inhibits macrophage colony-stimulating factor-1-receptor activator of NF-κB ligand-stimulated osteoclast differentiation and may regulate bone turnover under conditions in which adenosine levels are elevated.
JournalThe American journal of pathology
Am J Pathol (1525-2191)
The American journal of pathology
Division of Translational Medicine, Department of Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA.
Am J Pathol. 2012 Feb;180(2):775-86
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