This study was undertaken to investigate the prognostic significance of the expression of Id-1 and the p65 subunit of NF-κB (NF-κB/p65) and the proteins' roles in the invasion process of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cells.
The messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels of Id-1 and NF-κB/p65 in normal nasopharyngeal epithelial cells and NPC cell lines were examined using reverse transcription-PCR and western blot analysis, whereas the mRNA and protein levels of Id-1 and NF-κB/p65 in clinical NPC specimens were determined by reverse transcription-PCR and immunohistochemistry.
Short hairpin RNA (shRNA) was used to silence Id-1 and NF-κB/p65 to allow for the examination of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 expression and migratory capacity changes in CNE-2 cells.
Multivariate Cox analysis revealed that elevated Id-1 expression was a significant independent predictor of the 5 year overall survival rate (hazards ratio = 16.720, P = 0.005). Furthermore, elevated expression of both Id-1 and NF-κB/p65 was associated with poor clinical survival (P = 0.049). Targeting Id-1 and NF-κB/p65 mRNA with shRNA in CNE-2 cells inhibited MMP-9 expression and decreased the migratory capacity of CNE-2 cells.
In conclusion, Id-1 expression is a novel independent prognostic marker molecule that helps identify NPC patients with a poor prognosis. Additionally, combined analysis of Id-1 and NF-κB/p65 can be useful for identifying patients at risk for unfavorable clinical outcomes. Id-1 or/and NF-κB/p65 enhanced tumor cell migration, which is associated with the secretion of MMP-9.