The optimal dose of donor T cells to prevent graft failure and minimize risk of early opportunistic infection and post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD), while avoiding severe aGVHD, remains unknown.
We prospectively studied CD34-selected 8-10/10 human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-matched unrelated donor (MUD) peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT) in a cohort of 19 paediatric AlloSCT recipients with malignant (n = 13) or non-malignant (n = 6) diseases. T cells were added back to achieve total dose 1·0-2·5 × 10(5) CD3(+) /kg. GVHD pharmacoprophylaxis consisted only of tacrolimus.
All patients engrafted neutrophils.
Probabilities of grade II-IV aGVHD, limited chronic GVHD (cGVHD), and extensive cGVHD were 15·8%, 23·3%, and 0%, respectively.
One patient developed PTLD. One-year infection-related mortality was 5·6%. T cell immune reconstitution was delayed. One-year overall survival was 82·3%. Five patients with malignant disease ultimately died from progressive disease. CD34-selected MUD PBSCT using a defined dose of T cell add-back resulted in high rates of engraftment and low risk of grade II-IV aGVHD, early transplantation-related mortality, and extensive cGVHD.