Epidemiologic studies examining fluid intake and bladder cancer have been extremely inconsistent, ranging from strong inverse to strong positive associations.
The authors reevaluated the association between fluid intake and bladder cancer among 47,909 participants in the prospective Health Professionals Follow-up Study over a period of 22 years.
During follow-up (1986-2008), 823 incident bladder cancer cases were diagnosed.
Information on fluid intake was collected by using the food frequency questionnaire at baseline and every 4 years thereafter.
Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was used to adjust for risk factors for bladder cancer.
Total fluid intake was inversely associated with bladder cancer when the analysis was based on the baseline diet (relative risk = 0.76, 95% confidence interval: 0.60, 0.97), comparing the highest total daily fluid intake quintile (>2,531 mL/day) with the lowest quintile (<1,290 mL/day) (P(trend) = 0.01). However, no association was detected when the analysis was based on recent diet or cumulative updated diet.
The updated analysis for total fluid intake and bladder cancer was attenuated compared with the original findings from the first 10-year follow-up period.