Genes regulated by sigma(M) have a characteristic pattern of induction in response to cell envelope-acting antibiotics as evidenced by hierarchical clustering analysis. sigma(M) also contributes to the expression of the Spx transcription factor and thereby indirectly regulates genes of the Spx regulon.
Cell envelope stress responses also include regulons controlled by sigma(W), sigma(B) and several two-component regulatory systems (e.g. LiaRS, YycFG, BceRS). Activation of the sigma(M) regulon increases expression of proteins functioning in transcriptional control, cell wall synthesis and shape determination, cell division, DNA damage monitoring, recombinational repair and detoxification.